Icyorezo cya Ebola kitagira umuti n’urukingo kikaba muri iyi minsi kibasiye bimwe mu bihugu byo muri Afurika cyamenyekanye bwa mbere ahagana mu mwaka wa 1976 mu gihugu cya Sudani na Congo aho abarenga 1000 banduraga ku mwaka.

ebola_virus

Ebola ni icyorezo giterwa na Virus yitwa Ebola. Ibimenyetso byayo birimo guhinda umuriro, kubabara mu muhogo, kubabara ingingo, kubabara umutwe, isesemi, kuruka, guhitwa bitangira kugaragara ku muntu hagati y’iminsi ibiri n’ibyumweru bibiri nyuma yo kwandura, bigakurikirwa no kudakora kw’umwijima n’impyiko, bihita bitera kuva amaraso menshi ahari umwenge hose ku mubiri.

Iyi ndwara yandura igihe amaraso cyangwa amatembabuzi ayo ariyo yose ava ku mubiri nk’icyunzwe, amarira, ibyuya by’uwanduye bihuye n’iby’utanduye. Inyamaswa zanduye, cyane cyane nk’inkende n’ibisa nayo ndetse n’uducurama byanduza cyane iyi ndwara nk’uko bigaragara ku rubuga rwa Wikipedia.

Ibivugwa kandi ko iyi ndwara ishobora kwandurira mu mwuka ntabwo biremezwa, gusa ikizwi ni uko uducurama two dushobora kwanduza iyi ndwara ariko yo ntigire icyo idukoraho nubwo twaba tuyifite. Iyo umuntu umwe yanduye iyi ndwara, bikaba bishoboka cyane kwanduza abandi bamwegereye.

Ebola yigeze kwitwa Zaire Virus

Ebola ikiboneka yabanje kwitwa Zaire Virus, nyuma abahanga basanga ikomoka ku zindi virus enye ziswe;

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)

Ebola virus (EBOV)

Sudan virus (SUDV)

Taï Forest virus (TAFV).

Uburyo iki cyorezo gikwirakwira ntabwo burasobanuka bwose neza, ariko ikizwi cyane ni uko guhura cyangwa gukoranaho kw’uwanduye n’utanduye hakabaho guhura kw’amaraso cyangwa amatembabuzi byanduza.

Uwanduye abuzwa cyane kugendagenda, ndetse umurambo w’uwanduye ntugomba gukorwaho kuko abaganga bavuga ko nawo ushobora kwanduza, bityo ushyinguranwa ubwitonzi, abaganga batambaye ibyangombwa byose bibarinda kwandura nabo barandura.

Muri iyi minsi ishize, abaganga babiri bavuraga indwara ya Ebola yadutse mu burengerazuba bwa Afurika bitabye Imana bazize iyo ndwara.

Kwandurira mu mwuka ntabwo biremezwa neza kugeza ubu, gusa igipimo cy’umwuka cya 0.8 kugera kuri 1.2 micrometre ngo gishobora gufatwa nk’agatonyanga gashobora kwanduza. Abahanga bavumbuye mu minsi ishize ko zimwe muri virus zatanga Ebola zishobora kuva mu mwuka w’ingurube zikagera ku biremwa bimeze nk’abantu.

Igikorerwa uwafashwe na Ebola

Mu kuvura umurwayi wa Ebola, icyo bakorera bwa mbere ni ukumushyira mu kato, kumusuzuma no kubanza kumuvura indwara zigira ibimenyetso nk’ibya Ebola harimo nka; Malaria, Cholera n’izindi. Iyo amaze kuvurwa ibi, hakurikiraho gufasha urwaye iyi ndwara kugirango umubiri we ntushiremo amazi n’amaraso, kandi iyo yitaweho vuba, amahirwe yo gukira aba ahari.
Abaganga bavura abafashwe na Ebola basabwa kwirinda cyane ko hari aho bahurira n’umubiri w’uwanduye.
Abaganga bavura abafashwe na Ebola basabwa kwirinda cyane ko hari aho bahurira n’umubiri w’uwanduye.

Mu kwirinda iyi ndwara harimo; kwirinda cyane inyamaswa nk’inkende n’ingurube ko bikora ku bantu. Ibi ngo bikorwa hasuzumwa neza izi nyamaswa niba zitaranduye, basanga zaranduye zikicwa zikajugunywa mu byobo byabugenewe. Inyamaswa cyangwa umubiri w’umuntu wanduye wapfuye nawo uririndwa cyane kuko ushobora kwanduza.

Mu kwirinda kandi abarya inyama basabwa kuziteka neza, gukaraba neza intoki kwambara uturinda ntoki, ndetse no kwirinda gukorakora imyenda cyangwa ibindi bintu bishobora kuba birimo amatembabuzi y’undi muntu.

Ibi byose bigakorwa mu gace gakekwamo umuntu cyangwa inyamaswa yanduye.

Nta muti w’iyi ndwara kugeza ubu uraboneka, abarwaye bafashwa gusa bahabwa amazi arimo umunyu n’isukari cyangwa bagaterwa za serumu.

Iyi ndwara yica mu buryo buri hejuru kuko hagati 50% na 90% by’abanduye ibica. Abahanga bakomeje kugerageza gushaka urukingo rw’iyi ndwara, ariko ntiruraboneka.

Gukunda inyama kw’abantu nibyo nyirabayazana wa Ebola

Abahanga bavuga ko Ebola ari indwara y’inyamaswa zo mu mashyamba (forets equatoriales), ubuhigi no kurya inyama z’inyamaswa zo mu bwoko bw’uducurama niho bikekwa ko Ebola yavuze iza mu bantu.

Inyoni zitandukanye zo mu bwoko bw’uducurama kugeza ubu nizo zivugwaho kuba ikigega cy’iyi virus ya Ebola. Uducurama ngo nitwo twa mbere twabonetsweho iyi ndwara ahagana mu 1976 kandi ngo nitwo twanduje izindi nyamaswa zimeze n’abantu, inyamaswa zororwa n’abantu kugera no ku bantu aho iyi ndwara ihita yihuta cyane.

Mu isuzuma ryakorewe ku ducurama basanze two dushobora kwibanira na Virus ya Ebola nta nkomyi. Mu 2002 – 2003 basuzumye ibisimba 1030 harimo uducurama 679 two muri Gabon na Congo basanze 13 muri utu ducurama twibanira na Ebola nyuma bayisanga no mu tundi twinshi mu bindi bihugu.

Hagati ya 1976 na 1998 ibisimba 30 000 birimo ibikururanda, inyoni zitandukanye n’ibindi by’amoko atandukanye byasuzumwe mu mashyamba yo muri Africa yo hagati basanze bimwe na bimwe bifite ibimenyetso byo kugira virus ya Ebola, nko mu nkende, za makaku, ibitera, nabyo ngo biba isoko yo kwanduza abantu.

Ubusanzwe kwanduzanya hagati y’inyamaswa n’abantu ntibiba kenshi, ariko iki cyorezo iyo kigeze mu bantu kirihuta cyane gukwirakwira.

Mu bice bimwe na bimwe bya Africa y’iburengerazuba, harimo n’aho iyi ndwara iri kuvugwa ubu, uducurama n’ibindi bisimba bikekwaho mu byibanira na Ebola biraribwa cyane, aho babyotsa cyangwa bakabitekamo inyama bisanzwe bakanywa n’amasosi. Kwandura muri bene ubu buryo ngo biroroshye cyane.

Mu Rwanda Ebola ntirahagera, ariko baryamiye amajanja

Muri uyu mwaka wa 2014 nibwo Ebola yagaragaye cyane kurusha indi myaka yose, aho abarenga 1711 babarwa ko banduye mu bihugu bya Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia na Nigeria.

Iyi ndwara ya Ebola n’ubwo ikiri kure y’u Rwanda, uburyo yandura n’uburyo yica biteye inkeke, kuburyo Abanyarwanda bakwiye gushyira imbaraga nyinshi cyane mu kuyikumira, ndetse bakanategura imbaraga zihagije zo kuyirwanya mu gihe yaba igeze mu Rwanda.

Minisiteri y’ubuzima itangaza ko yiteguye guhangana n’iki cyorezo mu gihe cyaba kigeze mu Rwanda, ko ndetse yaba ibikoresho, yaba n’ abakozi bahuguriwe kurwanya iki cyorezo bateguwe. Ifoto: www.medicaldaily.com

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